Recommended maize varieties and their characteristics
There are two categories of maize varieties in Uganda; Open Pollinated Varieties-OPVs and Hybrids
Improved OPVs are higher yielding than traditional varieties and seed can be recycled for two years by the farmers without a reduction in yield. Selection should be done before harvesting by marking the best plants with sticks or ribbon. The plants should have big healthy grains, no signs of disease or pest attack on stems, leaves and grains. The plants should be harvested separately, dried and stored for the next season. While in storage check frequently for any signs of pests and disease attack.
Hybrid varieties under good management yield more than OPVs. However, hybrid seed has to be bought every season. Recycling hybrid seed reduces yield potential.
|Category||Variety||Yield (MT ha-1)||Physiological maturity||Desired attributes||Suitable production areas|
Open Pollinated varieties (OPV)
|Longe 1||3 – 3.5||120 days||Has some tolerance for foliar diseases including MSV, GLS and NLB||All areas except highlands|
|Longe 4||2 – 3||100 – 105 days||Early maturing, drought tolerant, resistant to MSV, GLS and NLB||All areas except highlands|
|3 – 4||100 – 115 days||Quality protein maize, very good tolerance to foliar diseases||All areas except highlands|
|Longe 2H||6 – 7||130 – 140 days||Quality protein maize||All areas except highlands and arid areas like Karamoja region|
|5 – 5||110 – 120 days||Quality protein maize, very good tolerance to foliar diseases||All areas except highlands|
|9 – 10||100 – 120 days|
|6 – 7||100 – 120 days|
|6 – 7|
|6 – 8||High yields, ideal for mid altitude, bred with drought and storage pest resistance, erect leaves and good lodging resistance. MSV, GLS, NLB and Turcicum resistance|
|Kayongo (Longe 7H-IR)
|Snow white grain, good yields, hogh resistance to MSV, GLS, NLB and Turcicum treated with striga-away for effective control of striga weed (withc weed)|
Criteria for variety selection
Selection of maize varieties to be grown will depend on the factors listed below:
- Adaptability and yield potential. Maize is produced under a wide diversity of conditions. A farmer should select seed variety that is adaptable to the prevailing production conditions but at the same time gives yield that measure up to the potential of the seed.
- Resistance to Pests and Diseases: A wide range of pests and diseases will attack the maize at the different stages of its growth cycle. A farmer therefore should select a variety that can tolerate both pest and disease attack. Several tolerant maize varieties have been developed by NARO (Annex 1)
- Length of Growing Season: The length of the growing season of varieties plays an important role, especially when there is unpredictable variation in the amount and distribution of rainfall. Farmers should use varieties that have early maturity period and drought tolerant
Attributes of quality maize seed
- High germination rate > 85%
- Well dried to 13% moisture content
- Purity 98%: Ensure all seeds are of the same variety
- Clean: not mixed with foreign matter like stones or dirt, or other seeds
- Not damaged, broken, shrivelled, mouldy, or insect damaged
- Not rotten or discoloured faded
- All non-conformity should not exceed 2%.