Transforming the Poultry Farming in Uganda

The growth and transformation of the poultry farming to bring major developmental opportunities for society in the future decades

Poultry contributes to improved human nutrition and food security by being a leading source of high-quality protein in the form of eggs and meat. It acts as a key supplement to revenue from crops and other livestock enterprises, thus avoiding over-dependency on traditional commodities with inconsistent prices.

Poultry Management

Poultry contributes to improved human nutrition and food security by being a leading source of high-quality protein in the form of eggs and meat. It acts as a key supplement to revenue from crops and other livestock enterprises, thus avoiding over-dependency on traditional commodities with inconsistent prices.

It has a high potential to generate foreign exchange earnings through the export of poultry products to neighboring countries. Poultry is highly prized in many social-cultural functions such as dowry and festivities. The poultry industry in Uganda is relatively new.

Its major problem is therefore associated with its further expansion, though care must be taken to avoid overproduction.

Systems of Management

  • Free range
  • Semi-intensive
  • Intensive

The industry is characterized by widely diverse methods of production which include the following: village flocks, small-scale commercial flocks and large-scale commercial farms.

Constraints in poultry production include: production related constraints (inadequate access to improved breed, access and affordability of feed, disease control); lack of knowledge and skills, inadequate capital at all levels and marketing.

Essential Features of a Poultry House

  • Building a large poultry house ideal for chicken
  • Be rainproof
  • Be secure from windy rains
  • Have smooth surface walls to stop mites and other pests from hiding
  • Periodically spraying the poultry unit with insecticide and disinfectants
  • Periodically removing the dropping/cleaning the poultry house regularly
  • Have good ventilation and in hotter areas at least 2 sides should be partly chicken wire mesh
  • Preferably have cemented floor for ease of cleaning and disinfecting
  • Be rat-proof
  • Using plenty of litter after cleaning the poultry house
  • Keeping the right number of birds in poultry houses
  • Separating chicks from old birds
Chicken Rearing

Management of Chicks

Before chicks arrive at home; make sure that;

  • A brooder is in place
  • Paraffin lamps/electric bulbs/charcoal stove is available
  • Litter for the floor is available
  • 1m2 will accommodate 20 chicks upto 4 weeks old.
  • Temperature control: 350C for day-old chicks, 24-270c for 1 week.
  • Reduce heat as they grow especially at night.

Feeding Exotic Chicken

  • Broilers – 1 to 3 weeks feed with chick mash, 3 to 6 weeks feed with broiler starter, thereafter with broiler finisher.
  • Layers – 1 to 8 weeks feed on chick mash, after 8 weeks introduce growers mash gradually, then with layers mash after drop of first egg

General Disease Control Practices for Poultry

The following can only be used as guidelines for disease control, for proper disease diagnosis and treatment, consult the veterinarian.

  • Don’t overcrowd brooders
  • Adequate ventilation
  • Feed must be of good quality
  • Give clean water ad-lib
  • Don’t mix young and older birds
  • Clean poultry house
  • Dispose of dead birds quickly and isolate sick ones
  • Provide disinfectant at entrance to house

NB: Antibiotics should never be used to replace good management and should be used on prescription by a veterinarian.

Signs of ill health

  • Dullness
  • Reduced feed intake
  • Reduced water intake
  • Low egg production
  • Reduced growth rate
  • Rough coat

Record keeping in Poultry Farming

  • Production data e.g. number of eggs produced
  • Amount of food eaten
  • Health interventions e.g. treatment
  • Deaths
  • Sales and purchases

Local Chicken

About 40 percent of all households in Uganda keep chickens, largely in free-range systems.  They provide food and income and can be easily sold in time of need. There are three major chicken production systems in Uganda: the free-range, the semi-intensive and the intensive production systems

Layers

Egg laying chicken are normally called layers because they are for the purpose of commercial egg production. Layer chickens are such a special species of hens, which need to be raised from when they are one day old. They start laying eggs commercially from 18-19 weeks of age.

Success Stories

Egg laying chicken are normally called layers because they are for the purpose of commercial egg production. Layer chickens are such a special species of hens, which need to be raised from when they are one day old. They start laying eggs commercially from 18-19 weeks of age.

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