1. Select Your Site
(a) Newly cleared virgin and is best.
(b) If not, grow ginger on land once in three or four years, rotating with cassava and taro.
(c) Do not grow ginger on land previously cropped with bele, yam, banana, turmeric or tomatoes because of the root-knot nematodes (eelworms) which is the common disease for these crops so it can also affect ginger.
(d) Avoid steep slopes and low wet areas. Steep slopes because of continuously cropping of ginger; soil erosion is resulted in all the rich top soil being washed away.
- On hilly lands, the fertilizer application is a major cost because fertilizer is very easily leached
- Cost of production on hilly lands is comparatively higher than on flats eg. Labour, land preparation.
2. Land Preparation
(a) Weed, clear and burn all rubbish, because some weed species are susceptible to root-knot nematodes.
(b) Apply poultry manure 10 tonnes/ha.
(c) Using digging fork, turn soil, bury remaining rubbish and mix soil well with poultry manure. Leave for 2 weeks for the manure to decompose properly.
(d) Before planting prepare soil well, making it loose and fine.
(e) Sub-divide plots with well-arranged drained and form raised beds 1.8m wide and about 30-40cm high when good soil tilted is obtained.
Seedbeds Should be placed where susceptible crops have not been planted for several years. Preparation of the beds by turning the soil several times kills nematodes by leaving them to get hot and dry on the soil surface.
Soil fumigation may be possible and will kill nematodes as well as control some diseases and weeds.
3. Planting ginger
• Generally the best time to plant is September.
• Spread poultry manure at the rate of 10t/ha and mix well with soil 2 weeks before planting.
• Open furrows about 10cm in depth and 90cm apart.
• Apply basal P&K at planting and lightly cover with soil.
• Place rhizome 15cm apart in furrows if for immature ginger and 20cm apart for mature ginger.
• Cover rhizomes with soil to a depth of about 10-15cm.
4. Manures and Fertilizers
Well rotten FYM or compost at the rate of 25-30 ton/hectare should be applied at the time of planting.
The amount of inorganic fertilizer depends upon the fertility of the soil and organic manure used. It ranges between 100-120 kg nitrogen, 75-80 kg of phosphorus and 100 -120 kg of Murat of potash.
It is advisable to add 20-25 kg of elemental sulphur at the time of land preparation to correct the deficiency of sulphur which is increasing in Indian soils.
Half of nitrogen and entire quantity of phosphorus and Murat of potash should be given as basal. Rest of the nitrogen should be split in two doses as top dressing at the 45 and 90 days after planting.
5. Shade and mulching
One row of maize in every inter row space of ginger with maintenance of 100% maize population and application of additional fertilizer to maize additional yield of ginger can beobtained. Mulching is essential as it enhances sprouting , increase infiltration and organic matter .
First mulching should be done at the time of planting with quick rotting green leaves at the rate of 10-12 t/hectare or with dry leaves at the rate 5-6 t/hectare.
6. Water management
The crop raised in the month of April-May needs 2-4 initial watering at an interval of 7 days depending upon the soil types. After this the crop receives monsoon rain and comes up well till end of September. Subsequently the crop has to be given watering commencing from middle of October and the end of December at 15 days intervals. In ginger cultivation sprouting, rhizome initiation and rhizome development are critical stages of irrigation.